The Tico Post

Connecting Minds Through Words

Home Blogs Science Technology

Chandrayaan-3 Launch Updates: Nation awaits launch of ISRO’s moon mission

India’s space agency, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), is on the brink of making history again as it gears up for the launch of Chandrayaan 3, its third mission to explore the moon. The mission is set to take off on Friday at 14:35 hrs local time (2:35 a.m. ET).

CHANDRAAN-3 is the second mission in the Chandrayaan series. The mission is to demonstrate the capability to safely land and rove on the moon’s surface from end to end. The mission consists of a lander and a rover configuration. The mission is scheduled to be launched by the LVM3 mission from Sriharicota’s Space Development Centre (SDSC). The mission’s propulsion module will take the lander configuration and the rover configuration to a lunar orbit of 100 km. The mission also includes a payload called SHAPE (Spectro-Polarimetry-Habitable Planet Earth) to study Earth’s spectral and polari metric measurements from lunar orbit.

The mission payloads for the landers are:
ChaSTE (ChaTher) to measure surface temperature and thermal conductivity;
ILSA (Instrument for Moon Seismic Analysis) to measure seismicity around landing site;
LP (Plasma Density Estimator) to estimate plasma density and variations.
Lunar laser ranging studies are accommodated by a passive laser retroreflector array from NASA.

payloads include:
APXS (Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer) and LIDEX (Light Ion Batteries Extraction Spectroscope) to derive elemental composition near landing site.

CHANDRAAN-3 will have an indigenous Lander Module (LM), a Propulsion Module (PM), and a Rover with the mission to develop and demonstrate new technologies required for interplanetary missions.The Lander will be capable of soft landing at a specific lunar site and will deploy the Rover to conduct in situ chemical analysis of the moon’s surface during its mobility.Both the Lander and Rover will carry scientific payloads to conduct experiments on the Moon’s surface.The primary function of the PM is to transport the LM from the launch vehicle injection to the final lunar 100 km polar orbit and to separate the LM from the PM.The Propulsion Module also carries one scientific payload as an added value which will be operated after separation of the Lander Module.LVM3 M4 has been identified as the launch vehicle to put the integrated module into an elliptic parking orbit (EPO).

CHANDRABAN-3 mission objectives are to: demonstrate a safe and soft landing on the lunar surface demonstrate Rover roaming on the moon conduct in situ scientific experiments To accomplish these objectives, Lander is equipped with several advanced technologies, including: altimeters: laser and RF based altimeters velocimeters: laser doppler velocimeter and Lander horizontal velocity camera inertial measurement: laser gyro based inertial referencing and accelerometer package propulsion system: 800N throttleable liquid engines, 58N throttleable thrusters & throttleable engine control electronics navigation, guidance & control (NGC) design and associated software elements hazard detection and avoidance: Lander hazard detection & avoidance camera and processing algorithm landing leg mechanismIn order to demonstrate the above-mentioned advanced technologies in earth conditions, several Lander specific tests have been scheduled and successfully performed:

Integrated cold test – Demonstrate integrated sensors & navigation performance test using helicopter test platform

Integrated hot test – Demonstrate closed loop performance test using sensors, actuators & NGC using tower crane test platform

Lander Leg Mechanism performance test – Demonstrate Lander Leg mechanism on a lunar simulated test bed simulating various touch down conditions.

overall specifications for Chandrayaan-3 is provided below:

Sl No.ParameterSpecifications
1.Mission Life (Lander & Rover)One lunar day (~14 Earth days)
2.Landing Site (Prime)4 km x 2.4 km 69.367621 S, 32.348126 E
3.Science PayloadsLander:Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA)Chandra’s Surface Thermo physical Experiment (ChaSTE)Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA)Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) Rover:Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) Propulsion Module:Spectro-polarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth (SHAPE)
4.Two Module ConfigurationPropulsion Module (Carries Lander from launch injection to Lunar orbit)Lander Module (Rover is accommodated inside the Lander)
5.MassPropulsion Module: 2148 kgLander Module: 1752 kg including Rover of 26 kgTotal: 3900 kg
6.Power generationPropulsion Module: 758 WLander Module: 738W, WS with BiasRover: 50W
7.CommunicationPropulsion Module: Communicates with IDSNLander Module: Communicates with IDSN and Rover. Chandrayaan-2 Orbiter is also planned for contingency link.Rover: Communicates only with Lander.
8.Lander SensorsLaser Inertial Referencing and Accelerometer Package (LIRAP)Ka-Band Altimeter (KaRA)Lander Position Detection Camera (LPDC)LHDAC (Lander Hazard Detection & Avoidance Camera)Laser Altimeter (LASA)Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV)Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera (LHVC)Micro Star sensorInclinometer & Touchdown sensors
9.Lander ActuatorsReaction wheels – 4 nos (10 Nms & 0.1 Nm)
10.Lander Propulsion SystemBi-Propellant Propulsion System (MMH + MON3), 4 nos. of 800 N Throttleable engines & 8 nos. of 58 N; Throttleable Engine Control Electronics
11.Lander MechanismsLander legRover Ramp (Primary & Secondary)RoverILSA, Rambha & Chaste PayloadsUmbilical connector Protection Mechanism,X- Band Antenna
12.Lander Touchdown specificationsVertical velocity: ≤ 2 m / secHorizontal velocity: ≤ 0.5 m / secSlope:  ≤ 12 deg

The objectives of scientific payloads planned on Chandrayaan-3 Lander Module and Rover are provided below:

Sl. NoLander PayloadsObjectives
1.Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA)Langmuir probe (LP)To measure the near surface plasma (ions and electrons) density and its changes with time
2.Chandra’s Surface Thermo physical Experiment (ChaSTE)To carry out the measurements of thermal properties of lunar surface near polar region.
3.Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA)To measure seismicity around the landing site and delineating the structure of the lunar crust and mantle.
4.LASER Retroreflector Array (LRA)It is a passive experiment to understand the dynamics of Moon system.
Sl. NoRover PayloadsObjectives
1.LASER Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS)Qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis & To derive the chemical Composition and infer mineralogical composition to further our understanding of Lunar-surface.
2.Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS)To determine the elemental composition (Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca,Ti, Fe) of Lunar soil and rocks around the lunar landing site.
Sl. NoPropulsion Module PayloadObjectives
1.Spectro-polarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth (SHAPE)Future discoveries of smaller planets in reflected light would allow us to probe into variety of Exo-planets which would qualify for habitability (or for presence of life).

ISRO Appraises National Academia and Institutes on Chandrayaan-3 and Aditya-L1 Missions

On June 13, 2023

ISRO organised a one-day evaluation to the national academia & research institutes on upcoming Space Science missions Chandrayaan 3 & Aditya L1 at ISRO Headquarters Bangalore. Over 300 scientists, academicians & engineers from 20 academic & research institutes across the country were present in offline & online mode.Chandrayaan 3 mission will have scientific payloads on board its lander & rover. The mission will conduct in Situ Studies on the Moon’s surface at higher latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere.The mission will also have an experimental payload on board its Propulsion module. The mission will carry out Spectro-Polarimetric Observation of Earth from the Moon’s orbit.Aditya L1 mission will study the photons & Solar wind ions & Electrons emitted by the Sun & Interplanetary magnetic field. The mission will be in a halo orbit round the first Sun-EarAt the beginning of the proceedings, the Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Secretary of the Department of Space Development (DOS) stated that this evaluation with the national experts was organised to make sure that every possible effort is made to ensure the successful completion of the missions.The meetings were held on the Aditya L1 and Aditya-3 missions, and the directors / senior scientists from the following institutions attended the meeting: NAL (National Laboratories), ADA (National Institute of Aeronautics and Space Administration), NIAS (National Institute of Space Research), IUCAA (International Union for the Advancement of Astronomy), IIA (Indian Union for the Blind and Visually Impaired), RRI (Royal Indian Institute of Technology), JNCASR (Joint Research Council), IIG (Indian National Institute of Science and Technology), ARIES (Indian National Academy of Engineering), MAHE (Indian Institute of Technology and Science), University of Hyderabad (IIT Kharagpur), IISc (IIT-Madras), IIT Bombay (IIT-Bombay (IIT-Kolkata), Ashoka University (IIT-Ashoka University), and MAHE

The technical sessions were followed by in-depth discussions and discussions with national experts from academic and research institutions. Discussions with national academia & institutes also yielded valuable technical recommendations for configuration of upcoming space missions.In-depth discussions with national experts yielded valuable recommendations and feedback on technical aspects of both Chandrayaan -3 & Aditya -L1 missions for cross-checking and compliance by ISRO’s project teams.At the end of the session, members from academia & institutes unanimously expressed that project teams have addressed all aspects of both missions in their respective capacities.

Group photograph of the participants who attended the appraisal in person in ISRO Headquarters

Group photograph of the participants who attended the appraisal in person in ISRO Headquarters


Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *