ImageSource:https://stock.adobe.com/ India told Pakistan in the United Nations!
In the United Nations Security Council, India has once again slammed Pakistan on the Kashmir issue. India has said that instead of raising the issue of Kashmir repeatedly, Pakistan should focus on the issues it faces.India has requested Pakistan to focus on resolving its internal issues and not raise the Kashmir issue and make unsubstantiated accusations against New Delhi.
“To make the most of this Council’s time, I recommend that the relevant delegation convene… In the meeting held in the United Nations Security Council on August 5, Pakistan raised the issue of Kashmir by raising an old grudge. Counselor of India in the United Nations. Madhusudan said that the time of this conference can be utilized only when delegations from other countries focus on their country’s issues instead of blaming my country.A delegation has again used this forum to divert attention from the pressing issue of food security. They are repeatedly trying to divert the attention of the UN Security Council to advance their agenda.Madhusudan added, “There is no point in arguing with people who resort to terrorism to fulfill their ulterior motives. Jammu and Kashmir was and will remain an integral part of India.
In order to understand this conflict, we need to look back at the history of the region. In August, 1947, the two countries were on the brink of independence from Britain. The British, under the leadership of the then Governor General Louis Mountbatten carved out the British India empire. The British India empire was composed of several princely states (which were loyal to the British but ruled by a monarch) and states directly ruled by the British. The princely states at the time of partition had the option of ceding to India or to Pakistan. As Mountbatten said, “Generally, geographical circumstances and collective interests, etc. will be the factors to be taken into consideration.” The Muslim majority states generally ceded to Pakistan whereas the Hindu majority states ceded to India, even though India was a secular state.Kashmir was a unique case in that the majority of the people were Muslim but the ruler of the state was Hindu Maharajah Hari Singh. But this is not the only case in which the state of Jhunagadh faced such a conflict. The ruler of Jhunjhunu was a Muslim who wanted to join Pakistan against the wishes of the people of the state. Mountbatten suggested that Jhunu should go to India because it is a very populated state and it is totally surrounded by India. But the ruler of Jhunu surrendered to Pakistan. India was very angry and annexed Jhunu on the ground that the Pakistani Prime Minister Muhammed Ali jinnah said Hindus and Muslims cannot live together in one state and because of the fear of riots.However, the establishment of the Line of Actual Control (LOC) in 1948 was not enough. The UN then stepped in as a mediator. The Security Council passed Resolution 47 on April 21, 1948. The five-member commission (which was originally set up by Resolution 39) was supposed to travel to India’s subcontinent to help India and Pakistan to restore peace in Kashmir and to help them to prepare for a ‘Plebiscite’ to determine Kashmir’s accession. The commission was also supposed to recommend a three-stage process to defuse tensions.
- All Pakistani nationals who entered Kashmir to fight were to be evacuated
- India was to gradually reduce its forces in the region
- India was to appoint a referendum administrator who was nominated by the UN
The primary reason for this conflict between the two nations is due to how valuable Kashmir is in terms of national security, geography and resources.
The largely important Indus River flows through Kashmir. The Indus River is extremely crucial to agriculture in Pakistan. It is especially important in the lower Indus valley region, where rainfall is uncommon. Similarly, India depends on the Indus for irrigation. Hence, the Indus and its tributaries are highly sought after. The nation that controls this region effectively can cut off the water supply to the other. To manage these fears and ensure a fair distribution of the water from this river, the Indus Water Treaty. came into existence on the 19th of September, 1960. Under this treaty, India has control over the eastern tributaries of Beas, Ravi and Sutlej, while Pakistan has control over the western rivers of Indus, Chenab and Jhelum. India has roughly 16% of the total water carried by the river while Pakistan has the rest. However, while this treaty is in place, Pakistan still fears that in a potential conflict, India could cut off the supply, since they control the region of Kashmir through which the Indus flows. But it is important to note that in the previous wars, India did not choke off the water supply. Yet, from Pakistan’s standpoint, the possibility remains, making Kashmir precious to them. Additionally, the glaciers provide immense amounts of freshwater to the region.
The Kashmiri Rivers and water bodies also have the potential to generate hydroelectricity at great magnitudes. The state of Jammu and Kashmir largely depends on hydroelectricity for its power demands. At the moment, Kashmir only produces around 3000 megawatts of electricity. However, the region has the potential to produce up to 16,000 megawatts of power. The Indian administration is looking to tap into this, making Kashmir an important region. The region is also home to a plethora of resources such as uranium, gold, oil and natural gas.
From a geopolitical standpoint, Kashmir is vital as well. Kashmir serves as a bridge between South Asia and Central Asia. For India, it is the only direct route to Central Asia and through Central Asia to Europe. It plays a key role in the Belt and Road initiative. More importantly, it is key for the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The CPEC is a large-scale bilateral undertaking involving the development of infrastructure in Pakistan, the establishment of transportation networks between China and Pakistan and the creation of numerous energy projects. Many of these projects run through the Pakistan administered Kashmir. Pakistan aims at directly connecting itself with both Central Asia and China through Kashmir.